The short term for second third generation and fourth-generation wireless, communications. 4G sometimes named LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the stage of broadband mobile communications that will supersede the third generation (3G). Yet neither standards bodies nor carriers have concretely defined or agreed upon what exactly 4G will be, it is expected that end-to-end IP and high-quality streaming video will be among 4G's distinguishing features. Fourth generation networks are likely to use a combination of WiMAX and Wi-Fi.
The 3GPP was formed in December 1998 as a collaboration agreement bringing together a number of telecommunication standards bodies. These standards bodies are referred to as Organizational Partners. The original aim of the 3GPP was to produce globally applicable technical specifications for third generation mobile systems based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technology UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access). This was subsequently amended to include the maintenance and development of the GSM standards including GPRS and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution).Further network developments attributed to the 3GPP included evolution of service management through IMS, increased data rates in the UTRA via HSUPA /HSDPA and most recently, a new access and core network commonly termed LTE.
Designation for a cryptographic algorithm used in GSM for the authentication of the SIM by the background system using a challengeâ€“response procedure. A3 is chosen by the network operator and is thus not the same for the entire GSM system.
Designation for a cryptographic algorithm used in GSM for encrypting data on the air interface between the mobile station and the base station or background system. A5 is the same for the entire GSM system.
There are several variants of A5 (A5/0 to A5/7).